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Principles of Agronomy

What is Agronomy

Before we discuss the Principles of Agronomy, firstly we should know what is Agronomy.

Agronomy is the science, technology, and innovation of creating, producing, and utilizing plants in agriculture for food, fuel, fiber, diversion, and land reclamation.

Agronomy is the application/execution of science, technology, and innovation from the fields of chemistry, biology, soil science, pest management, water science, and hereditary qualities for improving and managing major food crops and their yields around the world.

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Principles of Agronomy

Principles of Agronomy

The eight major principles of agronomy are :

  • Sustainable Agriculture
  • Agrometeorology
  • Cropping System
  • Cropping Scheme
  • Crop Rotation
  • Soils and Tillage
  • Integrated Intensive Farming System
  • Dryland Agriculture

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Principle 1 – Sustainable Agriculture :

Sustainable agriculture is the act of farming using principles of ecology, the connection/relationship among living beings, and their current environment.
Sustainable agriculture mainly tries to support farmers, assets, and networks by advancing cultivating practices and strategies that are productive and profitable, and useful for networks.

Characteristics of Sustainable Agriculture :

  • Fulfill human food and fiber needs.
  • Improve environmental quality and the regular natural resource on which the agriculture economy depends.
  • Upgrade the personal satisfaction for farmers and society collectively.
  • Support the financial practicality of farm activity.

Techniques Used in Sustainable Agriculture :

The absolute most normal sustainable agriculture techniques, methods, and procedures are utilized by farmers today to accomplish the vital objectives of weed control, pest control, infectious and disease prevention, soil erosion control, and high soil quality.

Some of the techniques used in Sustainable Agriculture are as follows :

  • Crop / Harvest Rotation
  • Cover Crops
  • Soil Enrichment
  • Normal Pest Predators
  • Bio intensive Integrated Pest Management

Principle 2 –  Agrometeorology :

Agrometeorology is a part of meteorology that inspects the impacts and effects of climate, weather, and environment on crops, domesticated animals, and different agricultural tasks and operations.

What is the Scope of Agrometeorology :

(1) Stability in Crop Production :

For deciding harvest developing season, sun oriented radiation, air temperature, precipitation, wind, stickiness, and so forth, are significant climatic factors on which the development, improvement, and yield of a harvest depend.
Agrometeorology considers and surveys the appropriateness of these boundaries in a given area for the greatest harvest creation and financial advantages.

(ii) Planning of Crop for Stability in Production :

To decrease the risk of harvest/crop failure due to climatic and weather
To get balanced yields considerably even under climate misfortune
Appropriate cropping designs and unexpected editing arranging can be chosen by considering water prerequisites of yield, viability, precipitation, and available soil moisture.

(iii) Management of Crop:

The Crop Management includes different farm operations and activities like planting compost application, fertilizer application, plant security, water system planning, harvesting, threshing, and so on, and these can be done based on exceptionally custom-made climate support. For this, the utilization of operational forecasts, accessible from Agrometeorological warnings is made.

(iv) Monitoring of Crop :

To check crop wellbeing and development execution of a harvest, appropriate meteorological instruments, for example, crop development models. Water balance procedure or far-off detecting, and so on, can be utilized.

(v) Crop Modelling and Yield :

Environment relationship Suitable crop models contrived for the reason can give data or predict the outcomes about the development and yield when the current and past climate information and data are used.

(vi) Research in Crop-Climate Relationship :

Agrometeorology can assist with understanding crop environment relationships to determine the complexities of plant measures corresponding to its miniature environment.

(vii) Soil Formation :

Soil formation is time taking process that depends upon climatic components like temperature, precipitation, dampness, wind, and so on, accordingly, the environment is the main consideration in the formation and development of soil.

(viii) Livestock Production :

Livestock Production is a piece of agribusiness. The arrangement of good and unfavorable climate conditions for the development, advancement, and creation of animals is studied in Agrometeorology.
In this manner to enhance milk creation, and poultry creation, the climatic ordinary are worked out and the reasonable varieties can be developed or in any case, can give the suitable conditions to the current breeds of animals and birds.

Principle 3 – Cropping System :

Framework implies a bunch of parts that are interrelated and cooperate among themselves. The target of any editing framework is the effective use of all assets viz., land, water, and sun-based radiation. Keeping up with strength underway and getting higher net returns.

The objective of the Cropping System:

The main goal of the Cropping System are as follows :

  • expanding the space of development.
  • expanding the yield and productivity.
  • To increase yield and production per unit time.
  • To increase yield and production per unit space.

Cropping systems are of the following types :

The cropping system is generally divided into two main groups and these two groups are :

(1) Mixed Cropping
(2) Intensive Cropping

1. Mixed Cropping

Mixed Cropping is the method of growing two or more two crops together in the same piece of land.

Mixed Cropping is further divided into the following based on the method of sowing and these are as follows –

(a) Mixed Crops – In this group the seeds of various crops are collected, combined, and mixed as one and then sown/planted in lines.

(b) Companion Crops – Under this technique/process the seeds of various crops are not combined as one but various crops are planted in various columns or rows, e.g., between two lines of mustard and five to eight lines of wheat.

(c) Augmenting Crops – When sub-crops are planted to enhance the yield of the main crop sown, the sub-crops are called Augmenting or expanding crops.

The main Objectives of Mixed Cropping are:

  • To get helpful portions of money returns particularly in irrigated crops.
  • To use accessible space and supplements to an extreme possible extent.
  • To get balanced feed for cattle.
  • To get everyday prerequisites like fiber, oilseed, pulses, and many more.
  • To accomplish better appropriation of work consistently.
  • To defend against dangers of climate, sicknesses, and pests.

2. Intensive Cropping :

At the point when the region is restricted and the number of harvests to be developed increases within a definite period of time, this technique/method is named Intensive.

Techniques / Methods of the Intensive Cropping are :

The following techniques and methods have been created to make Intensive Cropping a huge success.

(a) Multiple Cropping :
It can be defined as a cropping system in which at least two or/and more crops are grown in progression within a year.

(b) Intercropping :
This is a cycle of growing two or more crops all the while on the same piece of land with definite rows and columns and in a fixed proportion is called Intercropping.

The fundamental object of Intercropping is to use the space left between two columns of the main crop and to deliver more grain per unit area/region.

Principle 4 – Cropping Scheme :

The Cropping Scheme is an arrangement in which crops are developed on singular plots of a farm during a given timeframe with the objective of acquiring the greatest return from each crop without loss of soil fertility.

The Cropping Scheme is identified with the most beneficial utilization of land, work, resources, capital, and the management so that the total greatest maximum income might be acquired from the farm and general with appropriate restorations of soil fertility.

The intensity of the Cropping Scheme :

(1) Cropping Intensity (CI) :

Cropping Intensity is the ratio/proportion of total cropped area to net cultivated area/region which is multiplied by 100 and addressed/represented in percentage.

(2) Rotational Intensity (RI) :

This is determined by calculating the number of crops grown in a rotation and is multiplied by 100 and afterward divided by the span/duration of the rotation.

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Principle 5 – Crop Rotation :

It refers to the intermittent progression of crops on a similar real estate parcel either in a year or throughout a more extended time period.

Crop rotation is a process/method of developing/growing various crops in progression on a real estate parcel in a particular timeframe, with a goal to get the greatest benefit from the least investment without decreasing the soil fertility/fruitfulness.

Benefits/Advantages of Crop Rotation :

  • It works with all the more even dissemination of work.
  • There is a general expansion in the total yield of harvests because of the maintenance of the proper physical state of the soil.
  • Appropriate selection of crops in revolution rotation help to decrease/prevent soil erosion or soil disintegration.
  • It supplies different necessities for farmers and their cattle.
  • There is a regular flow of pay/income over the course of the year.
  • Expansion of yield decreases the danger of financial losses from unfavorable climate and weather conditions and heavily damages pests and insects.
  • The frequency of weeds, diseases, illnesses, and pests is decreased and can be monitored and controlled effectively.
  • All Agricultural operations would be possible done on time for all the crops due to less competition.

Principle  6 – Soil and Tillage :

Protection horticulture utilizes soil natural action and editing frameworks to diminish the unreasonable aggravation of the dirt and to keep up with the yield build-ups on the dirt surface to limit harm to the climate and give natural matter and supplements.

Objectives of Soil and Tillage :

  • Provide and maintain ideal conditions in the root zone to empower them to develop and grow adequately and without any hindrance in catching plant supplements and water.
  • It increases useful natural biological activities in the soil to keep up with and reconstruct soil architecture of soil for improved water entry, water movement and better water distribution inside the soil profile competes with potential soil microbes, add to decay of natural materials to soil natural matter and different levels of humus.
  • Guarantee that water enters the soil so that plants have adequate water to communicate their expected development and abundance water goes through the soil to groundwater and stream, not over the surface as runoff where it can cause soil erosion.

Principle 7- The Integrated Intensive Farming System :

  • Characteristics of Integrated Intensive Farming System:
  • Enhance fertility of the soil and create agroforestry.
  • Diversify cultivating systems.
  • Promote better management and utilization of all-natural resources.
  • Reduce the dependence on synthetic manures, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides.

Principle 8 –  Dryland Agriculture :

  • Dryland cultivating has developed as a bunch of techniques, methods, and management processes utilized by farmers to regularly adjust and adapt to the presence or absence of moisture in a given crop cycle.
  • Endurance as a dryland farmer requires cautious farming of the moisture accessible for the crops and forceful management of costs to limit/minimize heavy losses in helpless years.
  • Dryland farmers realize that to succeed financially they must have to be forceful during the great years to counterbalance the terrible years.
  • Dryland farming includes the steady surveying of the measure of the amount of moisture present or lacking for any given crop cycle than arranging and planning accordingly.

READ ABOUT DAIRY FARMING

Some Frequently Asked Questions Related To Agronomy Are –

What is the study of agronomy?

Agronomy is the application/execution of science, technology, and innovation from the fields of chemistry, biology, soil science, pest management, water science, and hereditary qualities for improving and managing major food crops and their yields around the world. The experts in the field of agronomy are called agronomists.

What is the difference between agronomy and agriculture?

1. Agriculture is the science and specialty of cultivating the soil, developing yields, and raising animals. 2. Agronomy is the application/execution of science, technology, and innovation from the fields of chemistry, biology, soil science, pest management, water science, and hereditary qualities for improving and managing major food crops and their yields around the world.

What are the types of agronomy?

On the basis of their work Agronomist are of Four types - 1. Agronomist Consultant 2. Agronomist Engineer 3. Field Agronomist 4. Sales Agronomist. Agronomist consultants can work in different varieties of businesses and industries. An Agronomist Engineer works on an assortment of things going from cultivating and forestry services to arranging creature conditions to discovering better approaches to deal with food. A Field Agronomist will plan, spending plan, perform, budget, and will do research related to different types of agronomic crops. Sales Agronomists offer help and information on their agronomic items to clients and their principal objective is to sell items across their business region.

Why is agronomy important?

Agronomy provides farmers with the latest efficient, effective, and affordable methods and information about how to grow, care for plants and their environment and care about the nutritional requirements of plants and crops. All this helps in better yields. Agronomist also provides the latest, effective, and efficient methods to conserve soil and minimize the chances of soil erosion. Agronomist also helps in more effective utilization of nutrition by plants which result in more yield. Agronomist helps in weed, pest, and disease management in crops.

What does a agronomist do?

Agronomists are plant and soil researchers/scientists who develop innovative farm practices and technological practices to increase crop yield, further develop farm productivity and secure / protect the environment and climate. Agronomists can likewise serve as professional specialists, teachers, and consultants who work straightforwardly with farmers, organizations, and others in the farming local area to execute the most recent techniques and instruments for developing yields productively and reasonably. You may discover an Agronomist performing research in the field, laboring in soil and water preservation, planning crop creation and the executives, or pursuing practical turn of events. Agronomists invest a ton of energy and time thinking of analyses to work on plants' sturdiness, endurance, survival, and yield. The ultimate objective is to make the most bountiful, lively harvests conceivable.

What does an agronomist do?

Agronomists are plant and soil researchers/scientists who develop innovative farm practices and technological practices to increase crop yield, further develop farm productivity and secure / protect the environment and climate. Agronomists can likewise serve as professional specialists, teachers, and consultants who work straightforwardly with farmers, organizations, and others in the farming local area to execute the most recent techniques and instruments for developing yields productively and reasonably. You may discover an Agronomist performing research in the field, laboring in soil and water preservation, planning crop creation and the executives, or pursuing practical turn of events. Agronomists invest a ton of energy and time thinking of analyses to work on plants' sturdiness, endurance, survival, and yield. The ultimate objective is to make the most bountiful, lively harvests conceivable.

What does a agronomist do daily?

Agronomists are plant and soil researchers/scientists who develop innovative farm practices and technological practices to increase crop yield, further develop farm productivity and secure / protect the environment and climate. Agronomists are scientists who specialize in crop production, soil control, and soil management. Agronomists can likewise serve as professional specialists, teachers, and consultants who work straightforwardly with farmers, organizations, and others in the farming local area to execute the most recent techniques and instruments for developing yields productively and reasonably.

What does an agronomist do daily?

Agronomists are plant and soil researchers/scientists who develop innovative farm practices and technological practices to increase crop yield, further develop farm productivity and secure / protect the environment and climate. Agronomists are scientists who specialize in crop production, soil control, and soil management. Agronomists can likewise serve as professional specialists, teachers, and consultants who work straightforwardly with farmers, organizations, and others in the farming local area to execute the most recent techniques and instruments for developing yields productively and reasonably.

What are the 3 types of crops?

There are three types of crops based on seasons: 1. Kharif Crops 2. Rabi Crops 3. Zaid Crops. Kharif Crops are cultivated during the rainy season, the monsoon crops are another name for the Kharif crops. The Kharif season usually starts from June to September. Crops are generally sown at the beginning of the rainy season in June and harvested in September/October. Examples of Kharif crops are -Cotton, rice, bajra, corn, groundnuts, soybeans, and cotton. Rabi season generally begins in November and lasts until March/April. The sowing of the Rabi crop is primarily carried out through irrigation since the rainy season has already ended in November. Unusual rains in November/December can ruin the crops/harvest. Agriculturalists implant seeds in early fall, which gives a spring harvest. Wheat, tobacco, gram, barley, rapeseed, and mustard are major known rabi crops. Zaid Crops are grown from March to July, there is a quick short season between the Kharif season and Rabi season. Typically, Zaid crops are plants that are grown during this season. These crops can be also grown on irrigated land. So, there is no need to wait for the rainy season to start the cultivation of crops. Examples of Zaid crops are cucumber, pumpkin, and bitter-ground.

What are agronomy subjects?

Agronomy includes research in plant genetics, plant physiology, meteorology, and soil science. Agronomy is the application/execution of science, technology, and innovation from the fields of chemistry, biology, soil science, pest management, water science, and hereditary qualities for improving and managing major food crops and their yields around the world. The experts in the field of agronomy are called agronomists. Agronomists are plant and soil researchers/scientists who develop innovative farm practices and technological practices to increase crop yield, further develop farm productivity and secure / protect the environment and climate.

What are the 4 main branches of agriculture?

There are four major branches of agriculture - 1. Agronomy 2. Horticulture 3. Agricultural Engineering 4. Animal Science. Agronomists are plant and soil researchers/scientists who develop innovative farm practices and technological practices to increase crop yield, further develop farm productivity and secure / protect the environment and climate. Horticulture, the part of plant agriculture managing garden crops, mainly organic products, vegetables, and fancy decorative plants. Horticulture is the specialty of developing plants in nurseries and gardens to deliver food. Agricultural engineering involves the study of agricultural production as well as processing. Agricultural engineering combines the disciplines of civil, mechanical electrical, and chemical engineering principles with knowledge of agricultural principles according to technological principles. Animal Science is basically the breeding and caring of animals for specific purposes, such as for their meat, milk, and fur.

What are the benefits of being an agronomist?

Agronomy provides farmers with the latest efficient, effective, and affordable methods and information about how to grow, care for plants and their environment and care about the nutritional requirements of plants and crops. All this helps in better yields. Agronomist also provides the latest, effective, and efficient methods to conserve soil and minimize the chances of soil erosion. Agronomist also helps in more effective utilization of nutrition by plants which result in more yield. Agronomist helps in weed, pest, and disease management in crops.

What are 3 major areas of agriculture?

There are four major branches of agriculture - 1. Agronomy 2. Horticulture 3. Agricultural engineering. Agronomists are plant and soil researchers/scientists who develop innovative farm practices and technological practices to increase crop yield, further develop farm productivity and secure / protect the environment and climate. Horticulture, the part of plant agriculture managing garden crops, mainly organic products, vegetables, and fancy decorative plants. Horticulture is the specialty of developing plants in nurseries and gardens to deliver food. Agricultural engineering involves the study of agricultural production as well as processing. Agricultural engineering combines the disciplines of civil, mechanical electrical, and chemical engineering principles with knowledge of agricultural principles according to technological principles.

What is a field agronomist?

On the basis of their work Agronomist are of Four types - 1. Agronomist Consultant 2. Agronomist Engineer 3. Field Agronomist 4. Sales Agronomist. A Field Agronomist will plan, spending plan, perform, budget, and will do research related to different types of agronomic crops. A Field Agronomist does the following work - 1. Settle on agronomic-related choices in regards to production. 2. Get ready archived proposition for, build-up, oversee research preliminaries. 3. Assess items, gather changed information, and make proposals/recommendations. 4. Create, direct, and assess the capacity to bear species at the seedling phase of development.

What is difference between agronomy and soil science?

Agronomy provides farmers with the latest efficient, effective, and affordable methods and information about how to grow, care for plants and their environment and care about the nutritional requirements of plants and crops. Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification, and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.

What is the difference between soil science and agronomy?

Agronomy provides farmers with the latest efficient, effective, and affordable methods and information about how to grow, care for plants and their environment and care about the nutritional requirements of plants and crops. Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the Earth including soil formation, classification, and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.

Who is father of agronomy?

Pietro de'Crescenzi is the father of agronomy. Pietro de' Crescenzi was born in Bologna in about 1235. He was educated at the University of Bologna in logic, medicine, the natural sciences, and law, but did not take his doctorate.

Who is the father of agronomy in India?

Dr. M. S. Swaminathan is the father of agronomy in India. Mankombu Sambasivan Swaminathan (born 7 August 1925) is an Indian agronomist, agricultural scientist, plant geneticist, administrator, and humanitarian. Swaminathan is a global leader in the green revolution. He has been called the main architect of the green revolution in India for his leadership and role in introducing and further developing high-yielding varieties of wheat and rice.

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